Smart grids are bilateral interconnected networks in which, data and information play a crucial role in the process of energy
distribution. Thus, according to increasing development and complexity, they are mentioned as the cyber-physical systems. Obviously, the
security and economic situation of countries are largely dependent on performance stability and safety of these systems. According to the
high dependence of the smart grids to measurement sensors and communication technologies, these networks are very vulnerable to cyber
attacks. Load reduction (LR) attacks that lead to false data injection (FDI) on Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) sensors and produce
the misleading operational decision of the power system are too important among all cyber attacks. So we proposed an efficient
authentication protocol with identity protection for smart grids based on elliptic curve cryptography in which the substations and smart
appliances realized mutual authentication and key agreement via a tamper-resistant smart card so that the adversary cannot obtain the real
identities of them. As a result, the attacker cannot begin a cyber attack with impersonation and false data injection.
Published In:IJCSN Journal Volume 6, Issue 3
Date of Publication : June 2017
Pages : 336-345
Tables : 02
Fattaneh Pasand : Department of Engineering Computer, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr
Ali Marjanian : Department of Engineering Computer, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr
In this paper, an efficient authentication protocol based on
elliptic curve cryptography with identity protection for smart
grids has been proposed which can deploy in UTM systems.
In the proposed protocol, the substations and smart
appliances realized mutual authentication and key agreement
via a tamper-resistant smart card. The identities of the
substation and the appliance are encrypted and transmitted in
our protocol. So the adversary cannot access to the real
identities of the substation and the appliance. Furthermore,
the adversary cannot establish an impersonation attack to
inject false data into the system. Thus, it can prevent the LR
attacks in smart appliance side.
 ARC Advisory Group, SCADA Systems for Smart Grid,
 Salem AA. Electricity agents in smart grid markets.
Computers Industry. 2013; 64(3):235
241.Compind.2012.10.009. doi: 10.1016/j.
 Chim TW, Yiu SM, Hui LCK, Li VOK. PASS: Privacypreserving
Authentication Scheme for Smart Grids
Network. Proceedings of Cyber & Physical Security &
Privacy. 2011; 196201. 6102316
 Mostafa M, Fadlulah ZM, Kato N, Lu , Shen . A Lightweight
Message Authentication Scheme for Smart Grids
Communications. IEEE Transaction on Smart Grid. 2011;
 Liping Zhang, Shanyu Tang, He Luo, Elliptic Curve
Cryptography-Based Authentication with Identity
Protection for Smart Grids, PLOS 2016,
 Li QH, Cao GH. Multicast Authentication in the Smart Grid
with One-Time Signature. IEEE Transaction on Smart
Grid. 2012; 2(4) 686696.
 Oh S, Kwak J. Mutual Authentication & Key Establishment
mechanism using DCU certificate in Smart Grid. Applied
Mathematics & Information Sciences. 2012; 6(1S): 257S
 Nam J, Choo KKR, Han S, Kim M, Paik J, Won D. Efficient
& Anonymous Two-Factor User Authentication in
Wireless Sensor Network: Achieving User Anonymity with
Lightweight Sensors Computation. Plos one, 2015; 10(4):
 He D, Kumar N, Chilamkurti N. A secure temporalcredential-
based mutual authentication & key agreement
scheme with identity for wireless sensor networks.
Information Sciences. 2015; 321: 263277.
 Gao QH. Biometric Authentication in Smart Grid.
Proceedings of Energy & Sustainability Conference. 2012;
 He D, Zeadally S. Authentication protocol for ambient
assisted living system. IEEE Communications Magazine,
 Wang CQ, Zhang X, Zheng ZM. Cryptanalysis &
Improvement of a Biometric-Based Multi-Server
Authentication & Key Agreement Scheme. Plos one, 2016;
 Vaidya B, Markakis D, Mouftah HT. Authentication &
Authorization Mechanisms for Substation Automation in
Smart Grid Networks. IEEE Network. 2013; 511.
 Liu H, Ning HS, Zhang Y, Guizani M. Battery Status-aware
Authentication Scheme for V2G Networks in Smart Grid.
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grids. 2013; (4) (1):99110.
 Nicanfar H, Leung VCM. Password authenticated cluster
based group key agreement for smart grid communication.
Security & Communication Network. 2014; 7(1): 221233.
 Zhang L, Tang S, Jiang Y, Ma Z. Robust & Efficient
Authentication Protocol Based on ECC for Smart Grids.
2013 IEEE International Conference on Green Computing & Communications & IEEE Internet of Things & IEEE
Cyber, Physical & Social Computing, 201; 20892093.
 Nicanfar H, Leung VCM. Multilayer Consensus ECCBased
Password Authenticated Key-Exchange Protocol for
Smart Grid System. IEEE Transaction on Smart Grid. 2013;
 He D, Kumar N, Lee JH. An efficient & privacy preserving
data aggregation scheme for the smart grids against internal
attackers. Wireless Network. 2016; 22(2): 491502.
 Li D, Aung Z, Williams JR, Sanchez A. Efficient & faultdiagnosable
authentication architecture for AMI in the
smart grid. Security & Communication Networks. 2015;
 Burrows M, Abadi M, Needham R. Logic of authentication.
ACM Transaction on Computer Systems. 1990; (8): 1836.
 Nessett DM. A critique of the Burrows, Abadi, & Needham
logic. ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review. 1990;
 Li Gong, Needham R, Yahalom R. Reasoning about belief
in cryptographic protocol. Proceedings of IEEE Computer
Society Symp. Research in Security & Privacy. 1990; 234
 Fan CI, Lin YH. Provably Secure Remote Authentication
Scheme with Privacy Protection on Biometrics. IEEE
Transactions on Information Forensics & Security. 2009;
 Darrel H, Alfred M, Scott Vanstone. Guide to elliptic curve
cryptography. 2004; Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
 Kilinc HH, Yanik T. A Survey of SIP Authentication & Key
Agreement Schemes. IEEE Communications Surveys&
Tutorials. 2013; 119.
 Adnan A, Abdul N.M, Zahir T, Identification of vulnerable
node clusters against false data injection attack in an AMI
based Smart Grid, Elsevier-Science Direct, Information
Systems, Volume 53, OctoberNovember 2015, Pages
All rights reserverd @ IJCSN International Journal www.IJCSN.org