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  Measuring Spatial Correlation of Soil pH and Fe using Theoretical Variograms  
  Authors : Jaishree Tailor; Kalpesh Lad; Ravi Gulati
  Cite as:


The principles of geostatistics states that, locations of data that are close to each other are similar to their neighbors and as the distance between the locations increases, the difference between corresponding data also increases which is known as spatial variability. Therefore this paper measures the spatial variability of soil pH and Fe tested on soil data sets of three talukas of Surat district. Measures of central tendency have been calculated for the soil samples. Empirical and theoretical variograms are calculated and plotted in R 3.2.2.by passing variogram parameters like nugget, sill and range. Further three commonly used variogram models for kriging namely Spherical, Exponential and Gaussian have been fitted for both pH and Fe. The Spherical model was more suitable for pH and Gaussian for Fe. Finally nugget-sill ratio is also calculated to understand the intensity of spatial correlation. The results indicated moderate spatial dependence for pH and strong for Fe in this region.


Published In : IJCSN Journal Volume 6, Issue 5

Date of Publication : October2017

Pages : 533-538

Figures :08

Tables : 03


Jaishree Tailor : achieved her M.C.A. degree in 2004 and is pursuing her Ph.D. in Geographical Information Systems from UTU. She is currently working as an Assistant Professor at Shrimad Rajchandra Institute of Management and Computer Application affiliated to Uka Tarsadia University (UTU)-Bardoli Gujarat. She has more than 13 years of experience in management and computer science field. Her area of specialization includes GIS and Open Source Technologies. She has published 7 research papers.

Dr. Kalpesh Lad : is working as an Associate Professor at Shrimad Rajchandra Institute of Management and Computer Application affiliated to Uka Tarsadia University (UTU)-Bardoli Gujarat. . He is a Ph.D. and has more than 15 years of experience in academics. His area of interest includes programming languages, system software, digital image processing, and data mining. Till now 2 candidates have completed Ph.D. under his guidance. He has organized and attended many workshops and training programmes. He has 35 plus research papers published to his credit.

Dr. Ravi Gulati : is working as an Associate Professor at Department of Computer Science at Veer Narmad South Gujarat University (VNSGU) Surat, Gujarat. He has more than 25 years of experience in academics. He is a PGDCA and achieved Ph.D. in Computer Science. His area of interest includes Data Structures, Client Server, and DBMS. He has guided many Ph.D. and M.Phil. students.


Variogram, Empirical, Theoretical, Spherical, Exponential, Gaussian, Nugget, Sill, Range

From the nugget sill ratio it can be concluded that Bardoli, Umarpada and Mandvi have moderate spatial dependence for pH values of soil whereas there is a strong spatial correlation between Fe values for these regions. The other important point to be focused is the fitting of variogram models as well as its parameters and curve. The process is rather vague and arbitrary, which can adversely affect the results of kriging and consequently mislead the prediction process of spatial variables [15], [16]. Through this paper the authors have highlighted the problems of vagueness in fitting variogram parameters and model selection process therefore this research can be further extended by proposing alternative solutions towards resolving the above mentioned issues and improve the prediction accuracy [17], [18].


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